Category: Tax Law
Puerto Rico Tax Haven Is Alluring, But Are There Tax Risks?
Waves of people are moving to Puerto Rico, including investors, lawyers, hedge funders, and more. Given the astounding tax benefits, many are doing it with good reason. The crypto community may be the biggest wave of all, as the alluring press coverage keeps noting.
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USAGE OF C CORPORATIONS REQUIRE ADHERENCE TO THE FORM AND SUBSTANCE
For all clients who use a multiple corporation set up, they are aware that they must submit invoices for services performed. The services must be actually performed and at an arm’s length pricing. The contract between the companies must be in writing and should also be approved within the minutes of the company paying for such services. Further, if questioned the client must be able to establish the essentials of an arm’s length agreement. Yet notwithstanding specific direction on how to determine an arm’s length price, having and following a written agreement, some companies do NOT follow the basic requirements to have this type of strategy successfully implemented.
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The Employee Retention Credit: Not Just for the Down-Trodden
Given the many compelling political events that occurred during the final months of 2020 (and into 2021), some business owners might not have been as closely focused on the significant changes to the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (“CARES”) Act[i], that, in many cases, could make a substantial and positive financial impact upon their respective businesses.
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IRS guidance on deducting PPP loans
The IRS released guidance on deducting PPP loans. Our team of #taxattorneys can discuss what this, along with other #taxsavings strategies, means for you and your business.
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The Made-in-America versus “Made-in-Puerto Rico” tax breaks
The Made-In-America tax break has been the object of much discussion since the IRS issued the final regulation on July 9, 2020. The tax break creates an effective reduction in the federal corporate tax rate from 21% to 13%. However, it has two problems: (1) the 13% effective tax rate only lasts until 2025, then increases to 16% effective tax rate; and (2) the tax break is only for goods and services produced in the U.S. and sold overseas, missing your U.S. customer base.
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Debatable political perspectives and tax implications
By Christopher Hynes, JD, CFP
Regardless of your political perspective, tax laws have without doubt changed in significant ways this year and depending upon who wins the election, tax increases may be inevitable. Chris Hynes, SVP of Tax Consulting for Tax Law Solutions provides some useful insight.
Predictably, opinions regarding who finished 1st and who finished 3rd in the initial 2020 presidential debate remain divided (Chris Wallace seems to be the consensus 2nd place finisher…). Prospective voters are similarly split on the sub-issue of Donald Trump’s taxes. Like the larger question of who prevailed in the (over) moderated insulta-thon, the resolution to this issue is clearly a matter of perspective: is it dishonest or unfair for a billionaire to pay less in federal income tax than his secretary (I know, that was a different billionaire)? Or, with due attribution to Bill Belichick, is Trump simply ‘playing the game as the game is played’. Ergo, isn’t any animus directed at the ‘player’ de facto illegitimate?
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Making the most of your business structure
Is your business currently structured to provide you with the most benefit? Our tax attorneys and business experts have the solutions your company needs.
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End of Year Tax Planning
If you wait until the end of the year to start your tax planning, you’re already too late. Contact us today!
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Me and Myself-Rental: Avoiding Tax Planning Plot Twists
Question: I as a business owner personally own property, that is being rented to my business. As a result of owning that building, I have a loss due to all the costs I’m incurring to own and maintain that building. All of these costs result in a loss, that I currently cannot use to offset my income. I’d like to be able to deduct that “passive loss”, to offset the tax that I am currently pay on my “active income”. Can I do that, and if so, how do I do it?
Answer: If you are working full-time (or, like many of our clients, MORE than full-time) in a business, that is unrelated to rental real estate, and you own rental real estate, it is nearly impossible to classify your real-estate-related activity as an “active” trade or business. Put simply, an “active” business is one in which you “materially participate”. Although the amount of time and effort you put into your rental business might feel like a full-time job, in the above-described circumstance, the IRS has almost monolithically characterized your toil as “passive” and not “active”.
What are the tax implications of having your business classified as “passive”?
Well, for starters, passive gains and passive losses can only offset one another. As such, passive losses cannot be used to offset “active” business income. For those with high active income, this limitation frequently produces an undesirable result. For example, if you own 3 rental properties that produce an aggregate passive loss of $50,000 due to expenses (depreciation is most frequently the largest of those expenses) and you have $500,000 of income from your active business, you will not be able to reduce your $500,000 active business income by the $50,000 passive loss. Unless you have other passive gain, the $50,000 excess passive loss cannot be deducted in that specific tax year. Instead, the passive loss would be “carried forward” to the following tax year where the loss can only be used to reduce future passive income.[i]
One notable exception to the general rule that all rental activities (as described above) are de jure´ passive is the “self-rental rule.” IRC §469 and, in particular, Treas. Reg. §1.469-2(f)(6), includes a self-rental provision that transforms income from a taxpayer’s rental activity into active income if the property is rented for use in a trade or business activity in which the taxpayer materially participates. In that circumstance, the rent paid by the operating business to the rental business is deducted from the active income of the operating business and, coincidentally, any expenses of the rental business can be used to reduce that (now) active rental income. Of course, the obverse is, because income in that circumstance has been recharacterized as “non-passive” through Congressional fiat, it can no longer offset passive losses, but solely active income.
For clients focused on reducing active business income, the self-rental rule can be a simple, yet effective, way to accomplish that objective. The most common self-rental structure involves a business owner renting real estate that he or she owns to a business that he or she also owns. Typically, the real estate is not owned in the operating business. The real estate entity is most often an LLC that is either taxed as partnership, an S corporation or, perhaps, a disregarded entity (reported on Schedule C) for income tax purposes. As you might have surmised, by logical extension, the self-rental rule also applies to leasing companies and other entities where the owner of the leasing company leases property to a business in which the owner materially participates.
Seems like a pretty straightforward exception, right?
Well, as Tax Code Plot Lines go, this one has a couple of interesting Twists…
Plot Twist #1: With self-rented property, the rule only applies if net income results. In other words, if the rental activity produces a loss, it remains a passive loss. Consequently, the amount of rent paid becomes a critical variable in this equation. Obviously, if the rental income is insufficient to “match up” with the amount of depreciation (and other expenses) taken and, ultimately, a loss is created in the rental activity, then that activity will be deemed passive. In this manner, Congress has created an exception to the exception. To counter-balance this re-re-characterization risk, many will be tempted to increase the rental amount to above-market rates in order to absorb the excess depreciation and zero-out the income statement, if necessary. As a result of this obvious moral hazard, the IRS will scrutinize rental agreements to ensure that they fairly reflect an arm’s length rate. Accordingly, clients must be prepared to justify—and properly document—all of these requisite components carefully…
Plot Twist #2: In a self-rental scenario, a taxpayer who rents real estate to a corporation receives income that is exempt from self-employment (SE) income tax (IRC § 1402(a)(1)). This is a significant tax benefit given that SE tax can be as high as 15.3%. The exemption also applies to property (other than real estate) that is leased along with real estate. However, there is no exemption from SE income if personal property alone (i.e., without real estate) is leased to a corporation. More specifically, IRC Section 1402(a)(1) only excludes “rentals from real estate and from personal property leased with the real estate” from “net earnings from self-employment.” Therefore, unless property is rented in conjunction with real estate, the rental income generated is expressly omitted from the SE exemption as expressed in the statute.
Thus, when an individual leases property to a “controlled corporation”, whether an S corporation or a C corporation, and that property is not leased in conjunction with real estate, any net rental income risks exposure to SE tax. Of course, this assumes that the leasing activity is conducted with regularity and continuity, so as to rise to the level of a trade or business. Conversely, if the leasing activity does not rise to a level such that it would be considered “active” (without consideration of the self-rental rule), the SE tax should not be an issue. Unfortunately, there is no bright-line rule to determine when activity moves from passive to active (although there’s LOTS of case law!). That determination is based purely on an examination of the relevant “facts and circumstances” appurtenant to the taxpayer’s conduct.
Admittedly, the above Plot Twists might not be as scintillating as “the phone call is coming from inside the house,” “it was all a dream,” or others that make the hair on the back of your neck stand up. However, in the context of an extremely common, real-life business scenario like self-rental, arming taxpayers with the knowledge to make their tax story lines boring and predictable is always worth the price of admission.
Pass the popcorn!
If you have any questions regarding this article or would like to submit a question for a future Q&A, please email TLS Support: firstname.lastname@example.org.
[i] When you sell your rental property, you may be able to deduct your suspended passive losses from the profit you earn. It is important to note that, in order to take this deduction, you must sell “substantially all” of your rental activity. Moreover, the sale must be a taxable event—that is you must recognize income or loss for tax purposes.